bartolomé de las casas et les amérindiens

(Vol II, p. 257)[93]. Another important part of the plan was to introduce a new kind of sustainable colonization, and Las Casas advocated supporting the migration of Spanish peasants to the Indies where they would introduce small-scale farming and agriculture, a kind of colonization that didn't rely on resource depletion and Indian labor. Arriving in Spain he was met by a barrage of accusations, many of them based on his Confesionario and its 12 rules, which many of his opponents found to be in essence a denial of the legitimacy of Spanish rule of its colonies, and hence a form of treason. [72], The judge, Fray Domingo de Soto, summarised the arguments. The second was a change in the labor policy so that instead of a colonist owning the labor of specific Indians, he would have a right to man-hours, to be carried out by no specific persons. Tout juste ont-ils su saisir au vol une suggestion malheureuse de Las Casas. [74], In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. [40], Las Casas suggested a plan where the encomienda would be abolished and Indians would be congregated into self-governing townships to become tribute-paying vassals of the king. [7], Bartolomé de las Casas was born in Seville in 1484, on 11 November. He participated in campaigns at Bayamo and Camagüey and in the massacre of Hatuey. In his early writings, he advocated the use of African slaves instead of Natives in the West Indian colonies but did so without knowing that the Portuguese were carrying out "brutal and unjust wars in the name of spreading the faith". C'est une manière de se débarrasser de ce gêneur qui irrite la cour et les colons. De retour en Amérique, Bartolomé de Las Casas prend conscience de l’injustice du système de l'encomienda. [111] He is also often cited as a predecessor of the liberation theology movement. omme le montre le doc. In Peru, power struggles between conquistadors and the viceroy became an open civil war in which the conquistadors led by Gonzalo Pizarro rebelled against the New Laws and defeated and executed the viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela in 1546. They did revoke some encomiendas from Spaniards, especially those who were living in Spain and not on the islands themselves; they even repossessed the encomienda of Fonseca, the Bishop of Burgos. His father was a merchant and was acquainted with the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus.Young Bartolomé, then about 9 years old, was in Seville when Columbus returned from his first voyage in 1493; he might have met members of the Taíno tribe who Columbus enslaved and brought back with him from the … Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies. It has also been noted that exaggeration of numbers was the norm in writing in 16th-century accounts, and both contemporary detractors and supporters of Las Casas were guilty of similar exaggerations. Regarding expenses, he argued that "this should not seem expensive or difficult, because after all, everything comes from them [the Indians] and they work for it and it is theirs. Founded in 1515, there was already a small Franciscan monastery in Cumana, and a Dominican one at Chiribichi, but the monks there were being harassed by Spaniards operating slave raids from the nearby Island of Cubagua. [95], Opposition to Las Casas reached its climax in historiography with Spanish right-wing, nationalist historians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries constructing a pro-Spanish White Legend, arguing that the Spanish Empire was benevolent and just and denying any adverse consequences of Spanish colonialism. 11 Historia de Indias, Obras escogidas, t. CX, Madrid, 1958, p. 463 a. He also informed the Theologians of Salamanca, led by Francisco de Vitoria, of the mass baptism practiced by the Franciscans, resulting in a dictum condemning the practice as sacrilegious. [64] As a bishop Las Casas was involved in frequent conflicts with the encomenderos and secular laity of his diocese: among the landowners there was the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo. On Christmas Eve of 1515, Las Casas met the monarch and discussed the situation in the Indies with him; the king agreed to hear him out in more detail at a later date. The tragic outcome of Las Casas's great mainland adventure made him turn his life in a new direction. He put his faith in his coming audience with the king, but it never came, for King Ferdinand died on January 25, 1516. [53] In 1538 Las Casas was recalled from his mission by Bishop Marroquín who wanted him to go to Mexico and then on to Spain to seek more Dominicans to assist in the mission. Consequently, the commissioners were unable to take any radical steps towards improving the situation of the natives. Las Casas feared that at the rate the exploitation was proceeding it would be too late to hinder their annihilation unless action were taken rapidly. Las Casas was disappointed and infuriated. [80][81] In 1565 he wrote his last will, signing over his immense library to the college. Las Casas appointed a vicar for his diocese and set out for Europe in December 1546, arriving in Lisbon in April 1547 and in Spain on November 1547. This was easier thought than done, as most of the people who were in positions of power were themselves either encomenderos or otherwise profiting from the influx of wealth from the Indies. que Cortès et son armada touche le sol du Yucatán... Bartolomé de Las Casas se sent naturellement appelé par ces nouvelles terres. Originally planned as a six-volume work, each volume describes a decade of the history of the Indies from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 to 1520, and most of it is an eye-witness account. [29] In the winter of 1515, King Ferdinand lay ill in Plasencia, but Las Casas was able to get a letter of introduction to the king from the Archbishop of Seville, Diego de Deza. Las Casas resolved to meet instead with the young king Charles I. Ximenez died on November 8, and the young King arrived in Valladolid on November 25, 1517. (Latin America Otherwise. The first edition in translation was published in Dutch in 1578, during the religious persecution of Dutch Protestants by the Spanish crown, followed by editions in French (1578), English (1583), and German (1599) – all countries where religious wars were raging. Before a council consisting of Cardinal García de Loaysa, the Count of Osorno, Bishop Fuenleal and several members of the Council of the Indies, Las Casas argued that the only solution to the problem was to remove all Indians from the care of secular Spaniards, by abolishing the encomienda system and putting them instead directly under the Crown as royal tribute-paying subjects. Bartolomé de Las Casas, indigenous rights, and ecclesiastical imperalism. He is the subject of the poetic sequence "Homage to Bartolomé de Las Casas" by the American poet Daniel Tobin, which appears in his book Double Life. Some privileges were also granted to the initial 50 shareholders in Las Casas's scheme. ... Like one who kills a son before his father's eyes is the man who offers sacrifice from the property of the poor. [108] That critique has been rejected by other historians as facile and anachronistic. Some historians, such as Castro, argue that he was more of a politician than a humanitarian and that his liberation policies were always combined with schemes to make colonial extraction of resources from the natives more efficient. • Le verdict du Légat fut prononcé en faveur de B. de Las Casas à savoir que les Amérindiens ont bien une âme. Las Casas's group of friars established a Dominican presence in Rabinal, Sacapulas and Cobán. Or c'est du temps où il était lui-même colon ... Lire la suite. [56] The encomienda had, in fact, legally been abolished in 1523, but it had been reinstituted in 1526, and in 1530 a general ordinance against slavery was reversed by the Crown. However, it did not succeed. He wrote a letter asking for permission to stay in Spain a little longer to argue for the emperor that conversion and colonization were best achieved by peaceful means. Il entame une campagne pour la défense des Indiens et renonce à son encomienda en 1514. [49] In 1536 Las Casas followed a number of friars to Guatemala, where they began to prepare to undertake a mission among the Maya Indians. [36] Worried by the visions that Las Casas had drawn up of the situation in the Indies, Cardinal Cisneros decided to send a group of Hieronymite monks to take over the government of the islands. Homme de foi et de convictions, le religieux dominicain Bartolomé de Las Casas a proclamé pour la première fois, il y a un demi-millénaire, l'universalité des droits de l'Homme. Il est né à Séville en 1484 et meurt à Madrid en 1566. Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas est le fils d'un des compagnons de voyage de Christophe Colomb. He still suggested that the loss of Indian labor for the colonists could be replaced by allowing importation of African slaves. While waiting, Las Casas produced a report that he presented to the Bishop of Burgos, Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, and secretary Lope Conchillos, who were functionaries in complete charge of the royal policies regarding the Indies; both were encomenderos. [43], Arriving in Puerto Rico, in January 1521, he received the terrible news that the Dominican convent at Chiribichi had been sacked by Indians, and that the Spaniards of the islands had launched a punitive expedition, led by Gonzalo de Ocampo, into the very heart of the territory that Las Casas wanted to colonize peacefully. Bartolomé de las Casas, né à Séville en 1484 et mort à Madrid le 17 juillet 1566, est un prêtre dominicain, écrivain et historien espagnol.Il est célèbre pour avoir défendu la cause des Amérindiens et dénoncé les violences espagnoles.. Il se rend aux Amériques en 1502 à Hispaniola (Saint-Domingue) et devient propriétaire d'une encomienda. He described in detail social arrangements, distribution of work, how provisions would be divided and even how table manners were to be introduced. Bartolomé de Las Casas (1484-1566) prend connaissance de ce sermon prophétique qui « fait partie de ces événements qui font date dans l’histoire de l’Église et de l’humanité », écrit Mariano Delgado. Une fois de plus l'Eglise en a été la complice . [19] In December 1511, a Dominican preacher Fray Antonio de Montesinos preached a fiery sermon that implicated the colonists in the genocide of the native peoples. En attendant, en 1544, le fils de Charles Quint, le futur Philippe II, profite d'une absence de son père pour mettre au défi Las Casas de mettre en application ses préconisations à la tête d'un évêché. [42] He suggested fortifying the northern coast of Venezuela, establishing ten royal forts to protect the Indians and starting up a system of trade in gold and pearls. Las Casas's influence turned the favor of the court against Secretary Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca. Il comprend vite la situation qui s'est mise en place dans le nouveau Monde. L'aberration du Onzième Remède (1516) [en ligne]. [65][66] At the meeting, probably after lengthy reflection, and realizing that the New Laws were lost in Mexico, Las Casas presented a moderated view on the problems of confession and restitution of property, Archbishop Juan de Zumárraga of Mexico and Bishop Julián Garcés of Puebla agreed completely with his new moderate stance, Bishop Vasco de Quiroga of Michoacán had minor reservations, and Bishops Francisco Marroquín of Guatemala and Juan Lopez de Zárate of Oaxaca did not object. In 1527 he began working on his History of the Indies, in which he reported much of what he had witnessed first hand in the conquest and colonization of New Spain. Las Casas was finally convinced that all the actions of the Spanish in the New World had been illegal and that they constituted a great injustice. One detractor, the abolitionist David Walker, called Las Casas a "wretch... stimulated by sordid avarice only," holding him responsible for the enslavement of thousands of Africans. « Ce terme ou vocable de conquête, en ce qui concerne les Indes découvertes ou à découvrir, est tyrannique, mahométique, abusif et infernal. En savoir plus, Vallverdu, c'est vous le roi du barbarisme! This was meant simply to halt the decimation of the Indian population and to give the surviving Indians time to reconstitute themselves. He also came into conflict with the Bishop of Guatemala Francisco Marroquín, to whose jurisdiction the diocese had previously belonged. In fact it was not published for 314 years, until 1875. Il renonce à ses Indiens en 1514, ne devient dominicain qu’en 1522-23, et n’accepte vraiment l’altérité qu’à la fin de sa vie, et estimant que les sacrifices humains sont excusables, et la barbarie une question de … Las Casas had become a hated figure by Spaniards all over the islands, and he had to seek refuge in the Dominican monastery. Bartolomé avait conservé une relation intime avec les fils de … Bartolomé de Las Casas et la traite des nègres In : Bartolomé de Las Casas : Face à l'esclavage des Noir-e-s en Amériques/Caraïbes. [69], As a part of Las Casas's defense by offense, he had to argue against Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. [119], He is a central character in the H. R. Hays historical novel The Takers of the City, published in 1946.[120]. Le mythe du « bon sauvage » – Qu’appelle-t-on le mythe du Bon Sauvage ? In 1531, he wrote a letter to Garcia Manrique, Count of Osorno, protesting again the mistreatment of the Indians and advocating a return to his original reform plan of 1516. Las Casas and the commissioners traveled to Santo Domingo on separate ships, and Las Casas arrived two weeks later than the Hieronimytes. The two orders had very different approaches to the conversion of the Indians. Las Casas is often considered to be one of the first advocates for a universal conception of human dignity (later human rights). Las Casas worked there in adverse conditions for the following months, being constantly harassed by the Spanish pearl fishers of Cubagua island who traded slaves for alcohol with the natives. 10 Lire là-dessus la thèse de José Cerra Dos Reis, Étude comparative des positions de Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas (o. p.) et du Père Antonio de Vieira (s. While bishop, Las Casas was the principal consecrator of Antonio de Valdivieso, Bishop of Nicaragua (1544). When he accused the Hieronymites of being complicit in kidnapping Indians, the relationship between Las Casas and the commissioners broke down. [11] Following the testimony of Las Casas's biographer Antonio de Remesal, tradition has it that Las Casas studied a licentiate at Salamanca, but this is never mentioned in Las Casas's own writings. [106] That view is contradicted by Sylvia Wynter, who argued that Las Casas's 1516 Memorial was the direct cause of Charles V granting permission in 1518 to transport the first 4,000 African slaves to Jamaica. [82], The text, written 1516, starts by describing its purpose: to present "The remedies that seem necessary in order that the evil and harm that exists in the Indies cease, and that God and our Lord the Prince may draw greater benefits than hitherto, and that the republic may be better preserved and consoled. [45] He returned to Hispaniola in January 1522, and heard the news of the massacre. Las Casas had a considerable part in selecting them and writing the instructions under which their new government would be instated, largely based on Las Casas's memorial. [105] Other historians, such as John Fiske writing in 1900, denied that Las Casas's suggestions affected the development of the slave trade. L'empereur, ému par sa plaidoirie, décide de sévir contre les abus en Amérique. In 1550, he participated in the Valladolid debate, in which Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that the Indians were less than human, and required Spanish masters to become civilized. La Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (en français : Très bref rapport ou Très brève relation de la destruction des Indes) est un livre écrit à partir de 1539 par le frère dominicain Bartolomé de las Casas et publié en 1552. Ce qui requiert, non la conquête … Las Casas entered the Dominican Order and became a friar, leaving public life for a decade. [54] Las Casas left Guatemala for Mexico, where he stayed for more than a year before setting out for Spain in 1540. [88], The Apologetic Summary History of the People of These Indies (Spanish: Apologética historia summaria de las gentes destas Indias) was first written as the 68th chapter of the General History of the Indies, but Las Casas changed it into a volume of its own, recognizing that the material was not historical. "[83], Las Casas's first proposed remedy was a complete moratorium on the use of Indian labor in the Indies until such time as better regulations of it were set in place. Le regard du jeune Bartolomé de las Casas aura peut-être croisé celui du grand amiral Colomb mais se sera sûrement davantage attardé sur les " Indiens " exhibés sur les hauteurs de la ville lumière. In Spain, Las Casas started securing official support for the Guatemalan mission, and he managed to get a royal decree forbidding secular intrusion into the Verapaces for the following five years. To make the proposal palatable to the king, Las Casas had to incorporate the prospect of profits for the royal treasury. Bien loin tout cela de la doctrine du Christ . It also exempted the few surviving Indians of Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Jamaica from tribute and all requirements of personal service. Son contradicteur rappelle les souffrances infligées par les colons aux Indiens, rappelle l'universalité de l'Évangile et relève aussi la relativité de la notion de barbarie. En priant au-dessus des tombes, on a conscience de faire partie d'une même communauté des vivants et des morts. The bread of the needy is the life of the poor; whoever deprives them of it is a man of blood." Bartolomé de Las Casas was born around 1484 in Seville, Spain. [68], Las Casas returned to Spain, leaving behind many conflicts and unresolved issues. Le 2 octobre 2002, son procès en béatification a été ouvert par l'Église catholique. It was important for Las Casas that this method be tested without meddling from secular colonists, so he chose a territory in the heart of Guatemala where there were no previous colonies and where the natives were considered fierce and war-like. Le travail et la pensée de Bartolomé de Las Casas, figure majeure de l’histoire universelle, qui a combattu toute sa vie pour les peuples du Nouveau-Monde, découverts et dominés par les Espagnols. [32][33][34][b] This shows that Las Casas's first concern was not to end slavery as an institution, but to end the physical abuse and suffering of the Indians. Las Casas defended himself by writing two treatises on the "Just Title" – arguing that the only legality with which the Spaniards could claim titles over realms in the New World was through peaceful proselytizing. In May 1517, Las Casas was forced to travel back to Spain to denounce to the regent the failure of the Hieronymite reforms. [46] To make matters worse, his detractors used the event as evidence of the need to pacify the Indians using military means. To secure the grant, Las Casas had to go through a long court fight against Bishop Fonseca and his supporters Gonzalo de Oviedo and Bishop Quevedo of Tierra Firme. Les multiples activités de Bartolomé de Las Casas, l'abondance de ses écrits et, surtout, les controverses passionnées qu'il suscite depuis si longtemps font que son personnage est plus illustre que compris. This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 21:20. La controverse de Valladolid est un débat qui opposa essentiellement le dominicain Bartolomé de Las Casas et le théologien Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda en deux séances d'un mois chacune (l'une en 1550 et l'autre en 1551) au collège San Gregorio de Valladolid, mais principalement par échanges épistolaires. Las Casas maintained that they were fully human, and that forcefully subjugating them was unjustifiable. Il défend les Amérindiens, pour qu’ils aient des conditions de vie dignes. "7 – Faith, Liberty, and the Defense of the Poor: Bishop Las Casas in the History of Human Right", Hertzke, Allen D., and Timothy Samuel Shah, eds. All the Indian slaves of the New World should be brought to live in these towns and become tribute paying subjects to the king. [96][97] Spanish pro-imperial historians such as Menéndez y Pelayo, Menéndez Pidal, and J. Pérez de Barrada depicted Las Casas as a madman, describing him as a "paranoic" and a monomaniac given to exaggeration,[98] and as a traitor towards his own nation. [100], Las Casas has also often been accused of exaggerating the atrocities he described in the Indies, some scholars holding that the initial population figures given by him were too high, which would make the population decline look worse than it actually was, and that epidemics of European disease were the prime cause of the population decline, not violence and exploitation. [65] After a year he had made himself so unpopular among the Spaniards of the area that he had to leave. Très tôt, l'ancien descubridor s'indigne du sort fait à ses habitants, les « Indiens » et, pour leur défense, rédige une Très brève relation sur la destruction des Indes qu'il lit à l'empereur Charles Quint, à Burgos, en 1540, en vue de le convaincre de mettre un terme aux exactions des colons et de corriger le système des encomiendas, qu'il connaît bien pour avoir lui-même reçu une encomienda en 1510. "Bartolomé de las Casas and the Question of Negro Slavery in the Early Spanish Indies." To Las Casas's dismay Bishop Marroquín openly defied the New Laws. Wars in which you have destroyed such an infinite number of them by homicides and slaughters never heard of before. Arriving as one of the first Spanish (and European) settlers in the Americas, Las Casas initially participated in, but eventually felt compelled to oppose, the abuses committed by colonists against the Native Americans. Sauf la mémoire de l’Histoire, grâce à la voix, au réquisitoire implacable de Bartolomé de las Casas : sa Brève relation de la destruction des Indes, publiée en 1552. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies[c] (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written in 1542 (published in Seville in 1552) about the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then-Prince Philip II of Spain. Ce fut l'origine de la traite atlantique. [60] Las Casas himself was also not satisfied with the laws, as they were not drastic enough and the encomienda system was going to function for many years still under the gradual abolition plan. Bartolomé de Las Casas (1484-1566) prend connaissance de ce sermon prophétique qui « fait partie de ces événements qui font date dans l’histoire de l’Église et de l’humanité », écrit Mariano Delgado. C’est le fait d’idéaliser les hommes qui vivent au plus près de la nature. [78], In 1561, he finished his Historia de las Indias and signed it over to the College of San Gregorio, stipulating that it could not be published until after forty years. 978 0 8223 3930 4; 978 0 8223 3939 7", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, Biblioteca de autor Bartolomé de las Casas, Works by or about Bartolomé de las Casas, Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines), United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin, Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bartolomé_de_las_Casas&oldid=990504581, People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Spanish Roman Catholic bishops in North America, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2017, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Episcopal Church (USA); The Roman Catholic Church.

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